(Piper nigrum)

Plant Family


Description and Distribution

Black pepper is a perennial vine reaching a height of  20 feet or more (5m).   The small white flowers are followed by red berries which become black when mature.   Although the plant is native to south-west India, it is extensively cultivated in Malaysia, China and Madagascar.   The oil is distilled in Europe and the USA from imported dried fruits.  

Nature of the Oil

A pale, greenish-yellow liquid, with a hot, spicy, piquant aroma.   Its odour effect is stimulating and warming; a reputed aphrodisiac.   

Main Constituents

Thujene, pinene, camphene, sabinene, careen, myrcene, limonene, phellandrene, beta-caryophyllene.


Analgesic, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, appetite-stimulant, bactericidal, carminative, digestive, diuretic, febrifugal, laxative, rubefacient, stimulant( nervous, circulatory, digestive), stomachic, sudorific, tonic.

Aroma therapeutic Uses

Poor circulation, muscular aches and pains, loss of appetite, nausea, colds and ‘flu, lethargy, mental fatigue.


Use in the lowest concentrations as it may irritate skin.

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